Lighting equipment

Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types ofstage lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to basic lighting, modern stage lighting can also include special effects, such aslasers and fog machines.
Stage lighting has multiple functions, including:
  • Selective Visibility: The simple ability to see what is occurring on stage. Any lighting design will be ineffective if the viewers cannot see the characters, unless this is the explicit intent.
  • Revelation of form: Altering the perception of shapes onstage, particularly three-dimensional stage elements.
  • Focus: Directing the audience's attention to an area of the stage or distracting them from another.
  • Mood: Setting the tone of a scene. Harsh red light has a totally different effect from soft lavender light.
  • Location and time of day: Establishing or altering position in time and space. Blues can suggest night time while orange and red can suggest a sunrise or sunset. Use of mechanical filters ("gobos") to project sky scenes, the moon, etc.
  • Projection/stage elements: Lighting may be used to project scenery or to act as scenery onstage.
  • Plot(script): A lighting event may trigger or advance the action onstage.
  • Composition: Lighting may be used to show only the areas of the stage which the designer wants the audience to see, and to "paint a picture"
While Lighting Design is an art form, and thus no one way is the only way, there is a modern movement that simply states that the Lighting Design helps to create the environment in which the action takes place while supporting the style of the piece. "Mood" is arguable while the environment is essential.

Floodlights are broad-beamed, high-intensity artificial lights often used to illuminate outdoor playing fields while an outdoor sports event is being held during low-light conditions. In the top tiers of many professional sports, it is a requirement for stadiums to have floodlights to allow games to be scheduled outside daylight hours. Evening or night matches may suit spectators who have work or other commitment earlier in the day. The main motivation for this is television marketing, especially in sports such as Gridiron which rely on TV rights money to finance the sport. Some sports grounds which do not have permanent floodlights installed may make use of portable temporary ones instead. Many larger floodlights (see bottom picture) will have gantries for bulb changing and maintenance. These will usually be able to accommodate one or two engineers.

The most common type of floodlight is the Metal Halide which emits a bright white light, however most commonly used for sporting events are high pressure Sodium floodlights which emit a soft orange light, similar to that of street lights; SON lamps have a very high lumens-to-watt ratio making them a cost effective choice where certain lux levels have to be met.

DJ lighting is a variant of stage lighting that is used by mobile DJs and in nightclubs. DJ lighting is generally used by mobile disco DJs and in most modern nightclubs and many late-night bars.
There are many different types of DJ lighting such as scanners which use a mirror to reflect beams of light that move around, twister-style effects that project multiple beams of light that rotate in a twisting style and also strobe lighting that flash intensely.

DJ lighting can be controlled by an internal sound activation, where the unit has a built-in sound to light function. Other control options are master-slave (daisy chain) and DMX control.